Symptoms of type 1 diabetes include fatigue, increased thirst, increased urination, nausea, vomiting, weight loss in spite of increased appetite. People with type 1 diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time. The condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting.
Symptoms of type 2 diabetes include blurred vision, fatigue, increased appetite, increased thirst, and increased urination.
A urine analysis may be used to look for glucsoce and ketones from the breakdown of fat. However, a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes.
The following blood tests are used to diagnose diabetes:
*Fasting blood glucose level--diabetes is diagnosed if higher than 126mg/dL on two occasions. Levels between 100 and 126 mg/dL are referred to as impaired fasting glucose or prediabetes. These leverls are considered to be risk factors for type 2 diabetes and its complications.
*Oral glucose tolerance test--diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours. (This test is used more for type 2 diabetes.)
*Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level--diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL and accompanied by the classic diabetes symptoms of increased thirst, urination, and fatigue. (This test must be confirmed with a fasting blood glucose test. )
People with diabetes need to have their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level checked every 3-6 months. It is a very helpful way to determine how well treatment is working.
As far as treatment is concerned, the immediate goals are to treat diabetic ketoacidosis and high blood glucose levels. Because type 1 diabetes can start suddenly and have severe symptoms, people who are newly diagnosed may need to go to the hospital.
The long-term goals of treatment are to:
*Prevent diabetes-related complications such as blindness, heart disease, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs